Polymeric Nanomedicines

Advances in Nanoophthalmology

Author(s): Cătălina A. Peptu, Dănuţ Costin, Anca N. Cadinoiu, Gabriela Lupescu (Andrei) and Marcel Popa

Pp: 641-670 (30)

DOI: 10.2174/9781608054848113010020

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


It is well known that the eye is one of the most complex organs of the human body. The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the eye render this organ highly impervious to foreign substances. A permanent challenge for the scientific world is to develop formulations able to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing any permanent tissue damage. For drug delivery at ocular level, the physiological barriers imposed by the protective mechanisms of the eye generally lead to poor absorption of drugs, many times small fractions of the administered dose penetrate the cornea reaching the intraocular tissues. This is the reason for which there is a continuous concern on the development of more sensitive diagnostic techniques and novel therapeutic formulations with higher and higher therapeutic efficacy and with a better compliance for the patient. One of the major objectives of clinical therapeutics is to ensure and maintain an adequate concentration of drugs at the site of action. Lately, it seems that the researchers’ attention is focused on the different types of nanocarriers: polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metallic or ceramic nanoparticles, dendrimers, niosomes, etc, each of them with properties which make them suitable for a specific application. In this chapter, the applications of nanosystems in controlled drug delivery, in gene therapy, ocular tissue replacement and “smart” applications in eye pathology are detailed. Recent studies of researchers from different laboratories are brought together to underline the complexity and the importance of the nanoophthalmology for the human health.

Keywords: Ocular disease, controlled drug delivery, nanotechnology, ocular infections, neovascularisation, anti-inflammatory drugs, age related macular degeneration, glaucoma, drug loaded liposomes, nanoparticles, nano polymeric micelles, nanostructured lipid carriers, ocular gene therapy, ocular tissue replacement therapies, smart ocular nanomaterials, vascular endothelial growth factor, corneal transplantation, stealth nanoparticles, artificial cornea.

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