Genome Editing in Bacteria (Part 2)

Designing the Metabolic Capacities of Environmental Bioprocesses through Genome Editing

Author(s): Ashish Kumar Singh, Bhagyashri Poddar, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Suraj Prabhakarrao Nakhate, Vijay Varghese, Anshuman A. Khardenavis* and Hemant J. Purohit

Pp: 222-246 (25)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815223798124010009

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


The ubiquity of the CRISPR gene system in bacteria and archaea is characterized by the Cas9 protein, which functions in the repression and activation of several genes. This inherent function of the CRISPR system can find application in bioprocess optimization in environmental and health research. Owing to the complex and dynamic nature of microbial communities catalysing the bioremediation of urban and industrial toxic waste effluents in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)/common effluent treatment plant (CETP), such sites represent a relatively untapped area for applying the CRISPR technique. DNA editing using CRISPR can enable the sitespecific enhancement in process efficiency of bacterial remediation, which under normal conditions is hampered by its non-selectivity and saturation of binding sites with multiple non-targeted pollutants. Similarly, under the second generation biorefinery concept, CRISPR can serve as a powerful tool in strengthening and improving the anaerobic bio-processes by genome editing in microbes for the heterogeneous expression of various genes associated with anaerobic digestion. Not only has the CRISPR system been used to insert desired genes in the host genome but also to regulate the expression of the host-specific genes. The role of methanotrophic and nitrogen metabolizing bacteria in shaping the atmospheric gaseous composition can also be monitored via CRISPR aided manipulation so as to regulate the nutritional exchange between the atmosphere and the soil. Additionally, genome editing of targeted organisms and crops has found extensive applications in various areas ranging from the nutrigenomics, food and pharmaceutical industry, diagnostics and therapeutics, health and disease prevention.

Keywords: Anaerobic bioprocesses, Bioremediation, CRISPR, Gene editing, Gut microbiome.

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